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【线上云德】疫情期间律师说(一百七十一)┃民法典亮点解析之婚姻家庭篇

 

婚姻家庭关系作为与咱们日常生活最密切的关系之一,到底在《民法典》中发生了怎样的变化?

As one of the closest relationships with our daily lives, what changes have taken place in the "Civil Code" of marriage and family relations? 

一、增设“30天离婚冷静期规定

《民法典》第一千零七十七条规定:自婚姻登记机关收到离婚登记申请之日起三十日内,任何一方不愿意离婚的,可以向婚姻登记机关撤回离婚登记申请。前款规定期间届满后三十日内,双方应当亲自到婚姻登记机关申请发给离婚证;未申请的,视为撤回离婚登记申请。

从该条规定可以看出,以往协议离婚即办即离的时代一去不复返,现在协议离婚最快也要31天,甚至更加久远。对于该条规定,引起网上热议,有人支持,认为可以防止闪婚闪离,避免冲动型离婚;有人反对,认为限制了离婚自由,成年人有权且应当对自己的行为负责,大多数人离婚都是在深思熟虑后进行的,冷静期的规定使多数人为少数人的行为买单。设置30天冷静期的初衷是为了维护婚姻家庭的稳定,也符合社会正确价值观,夫妻双方应当充分利用这30天正确审视、思考婚姻和家庭的价值和意义,包括离婚给双方家庭特别是未成年子女所带来的影响,谨慎选择。此外,对于当事人而言,在这30天内,也应当做好诉讼离婚的准备,包括夫妻共同财产的证据收集和固定,以防止对方利用这一时间漏洞进行财产转移以及拖延离婚,从而有效避免后期的离婚难和诉讼难。与此同时,对于律师而言,也可以指导离婚协议的完善起草、签署分居协议明确分居时间,或在此前有条件的签署夫妻财产约定,防止协议离婚不成导致离婚协议无效,以及提醒当事人在此期间内避免继续受到婚内家暴等情形。

1. The "30-day cooling-off period for divorce" is added

Article 1077 of the "Civil Code" stipulates that within 30 days from the date when the marriage registration authority receives the application for divorce registration, if either party is unwilling to divorce, it may withdraw the divorce registration application to the marriage registration authority. Within 30 days after the expiration of the period specified in the preceding paragraph, both parties shall personally go to the marriage registration authority to apply for the issuance of a divorce certificate; if they fail to apply, they shall be deemed to have withdrawn their divorce registration application.

It can be seen from this article that in the past, the era of divorce by agreement is gone, and now it takes 31 days at the earliest, or even longer. Regarding this provision, it has aroused hot discussion on the Internet. Some people support it and believe that "flash marriages can be prevented, and impulsive divorce can be avoided." Some people oppose that "the freedom of divorce is restricted. Adults have the right and should be responsible for their actions. Most Divorce is carried out after careful consideration, and the cooling-off period makes most people pay for the actions of a few people.” The original intention of setting the 30-day cooling-off period is to maintain the stability of the marriage and family, and it is also in line with the correct values of society. Both spouses should make full use of these 30 days to correctly examine and think about the value and meaning of marriage and family, including divorce for both families, especially minors. Choose carefully about the impact of your children. In addition, for the parties, within these 30 days, they should also prepare for divorce proceedings, including the collection and fixation of evidence of the husband and wife’s joint property, to prevent the other party from using this time loophole to transfer property and delay the divorce, thereby effectively avoiding later Divorce and litigation are difficult. At the same time, for lawyers, they can also guide the perfect drafting of the divorce agreement, sign the separation agreement to clarify the time of separation, or sign a conditional agreement on the property of the husband and wife before, to prevent the failure of the divorce agreement and cause the divorce agreement to be invalid, and to remind the parties here During the period, avoid continuing to suffer from marital domestic violence. 

二、患有重大疾病将不再属于禁止结婚的情形

《民法典》第一千零五十三条规定:一方患有重大疾病的,应当在结婚登记前如实告知另一方;不如实告知的,另一方可以向人民法院请求撤销婚姻。请求撤销婚姻的,应当自知道或者应当知道撤销事由之日起一年内提出。

原婚姻法第七条规定患有医学上认为不应当结婚的疾病为禁止结婚的情形。而《民法典》将这一规定进行了取消,只要在婚前尽到如实告知义务,便不再受影响,充分尊重和保障了公民的婚姻自主权。

2. Suffering from a major illness will no longer be a ban on marriage

Article 1053 of the "Civil Code" stipulates that: if one party suffers from a serious illness, he should truthfully inform the other party before marriage registration; if not truthfully, the other party can request the people's court to cancel the marriage. A request for cancellation of a marriage shall be made within one year from the date when the reason for the cancellation is known or should have been known.

Article 7 of the original Marriage Law stipulated that "suffering from a medically deemed disease that should not be married" is a situation where marriage is prohibited. The "Civil Code" abolished this provision. As long as the obligation of truthful notification is fulfilled before marriage, it will no longer be affected, fully respecting and guaranteeing citizens' marriage autonomy.

 

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